Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease mainly caused by resistance of insulin in the target organs as a consequence of increased fat. This insulin resistance initially causes the pancreas to secrete more of the hormone to maintain blood sugar levels within the normal range. However, later in the course of the disease, there is exhaustion of the gland giving rise to insulin deficiency.
Bariatric surgery not only helps in weight loss but it also leads to remission of diabetes in the majority of people. The different bariatric surgical procedures by reducing the body weight lead to decrease in insulin demand. The malabsorptive procedures cause undigested nutrients to come into direct contact with the small intestine. This causes rise in the levels of certain gut hormones known as incretions such as GLP-1. These hormones in turn stimulate insulin secretion from the pancreas. Increased insulin also up regulates the metabolism and causes more stored fat to be utilized for energy. As a consequence, weight loss is accelerated and it leads to diabetes remission.