Gastric bypass has been one of the most effective and popular Bariatric procedures till date. It was developed almost 40 yrs back and has since then undergone several refinements and presently it is being performed almost exclusively by the laparoscopic approach.
In this procedure, the stomach is stapled to form a small pouch of 30-50 cc which restricts the amount of food which can be consumed at one time. Moreover , there is rearrangement of the intestine which diverts the pathway of ingested food. This decreases the effective length of the bowel leading to malabsorption. The combined effect of restriction and malabsorption causes rapid and sustained weight loss in the majority of morbidly obese individuals.
The contact of undigested nutrients with the gut leads to release of certain hormones which increase insulin production from the pancreas which causes amelioration of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Thus, gastric bypass not only leads to weight loss but also cure of associated comorbid diseases.